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|The History of JuJutsu (also spelled Jiu-Jitsu)
JuJutsu is one of many combat arts practiced and honed by the Samurai during feudal Japan for war, strengthening of the mind and body, and fitness. Traditional JuJutsu, founded in 1532 as Takenouchi-ryu, combined many aspects of combat, which included punching, kicking, breaking of joints, choking, throwing, fighting on the ground, as well as the use of and defense against weaponry. The principal of the art was "defeating strength through flexibility".
Historically, the Japanese people were not large domineering people and the practice and efficiency of JuJitsu were imperative to survival. The Samurai were heavily armed and protected by heavy layered armor weighing upwards of 60lbs. An unarmed Japanese citizen or an unarmored Samurai would rely on the use of JuJutsu in order to defeat another Samurai in full armor.
JuJutsu can also be spelled JuJitsu and JiuJitsu. The hyphen can be used, depending on the language using the term in it's written form. Ju-Jutsu, Ju-Jitsu, and Jiu-Jitsu are also very commonly used.
|The History of Judo - Born From JuJutsu
Judo was founded in Japan by Jigaro Kano in 1882. Kano studied Japanese Tenjin Shinyo-ryu and Kito-ryu styles of JuJutsu.
During this period of training and refining his skill, Kano realized the techniques were so dangerous that if practiced at full speed, injury or death was imminent. Kano then altered the various curriculum from the schools, removed a lot of the dangerous techniques, then created an art with a new principal, "maximum efficient use of physical and mental energy".
This principal can be applied to just about any aspect of one's life. Kano removed the "Jutsu" from JuJutsu, meaning "art", and replaced it with "do", meaning "way". Then creating a new name for his art, called Judo, meaning "gentle way".
Judo embodies many aspects of grappling that can transcend it's core principals to just about any Martial Art. This includes the art of throwing an opponent to the ground by manipulating their balance and points of leverage. Once an opponent is thrown, Judo moves in to ground fighting, known as "newaza", and this includes pinning an opponent for 30 seconds or more, performing a joint breaking technique on a vulnerable point of the body, and/or choking an opponent unconscious by attacking the blood supply to the brain. Each of these pieces can be applied to take away the mind of the opponent and their willingness to fight or be combative.
In 1964 Judo was officially introduced to the Olympic games as a sanctioned event. At this time no other Martial Art was allowed as an event in the Olympics. Today Judo, practiced in approximately 195 countries, and Tae-Kwon-Do are the only Martial Arts sanctioned as an Olympic event.
|The Children of Judo - Other Grappling Arts
Since the inception of Judo and it's global growth, there are off-shoots of Judo that are also widely known and practiced around the world.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ)
The most widely known offshoot of Judo is Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, which was brought to Brazil by a Judoka (Judo practitioner) by the name of Mitsuyo Maeda. Maeda was 5 ft. 4 in. 141 lbs. and a 7th Dan Judo Black Belt under Jigaro Kano (Judo Founder) and had come to Brazil in 1914 to teach what was called Kano Jiu-Jitsu. Maeda was a specialist in Ne-Waza (ground fighting) and focused more on the teaching of Judo ground techniques, which is what Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu specicalizes in. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu does very little with the throwing and other standing self-defense skills.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) was made popular by Royce Gracie in the beginnings of the UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship). This is where Royce Gracie was able to take down and submit opponents of various Martial Arts styles. Judo and Jiu-Jitsu (Japanese) were NOT included in any of these fights because Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) came from Judo and Judo came from Jiu-Jitsu (Japanese). These 2 Martial Arts do not help achieve the goal of promoting Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) as conceived by the Gracie family. It's not widely known that the UFC was started by Rorian Gracie, one of Royce Gracie's uncles, to "showcase Gracie Jiu-Jitsu", hence the reason there was no Judo or Japanese Jiu-Jitsu fighters. All of the fighters in the early days were very limited to no experience grappling in any form.
The Russian variant meaning "self-defense without weapons". Sambo was created in the early 1920s. Sambo has retained many of the Judo Nage-Waza (throwing), Ne-Waza (ground), Shime-Waza (strangulation), and Kensetsu-Waza (locking) techniques for a very complete and aggressive art.
All Martial Arts and combat are based on balance and leverage of some kind in order to be effective. Take this away and you severely hinder the abilities of your opponent.
JuJutsu (Jiu-Jitsu) and Judo techniques and concepts have been used in militaries all over the world and was especially significant in the hand-to-hand training of U.S. soldiers in WWII. Bruce Lee incorporated Judo and JuJutsu (Jiu-Jitsu) in to his art, Jeet-Kune-Do. Kajukenbo, Krav Maga, Tae-Kwon-Do, and many other Martial Arts also incorporate Judo and JuJitsu (Jiu-Jitsu) in to their curriculum because of it's efficiency and effectiveness.
In film and TV going all the way back to John Wayne, you will find Judo in most fight scenes. Just about any fight scene in today's TV and film will incorporate Judo and JuJutsu (Jiu-Jitsu), which includes James Bond, Captain America, John Wick, Jack Reacher, and the list goes from there.